Challenges in the Diagnosis of Urothelial Carcinoma Variants: Can Emerging Molecular Data Complement Pathology Review?

Urothelial carcinoma can exhibit a wide variety of histopathological phenotypes or variant morphologies, classifications of which have recently been revised in the 2016 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. Many of these variants not only present diagnostic challenges, but also have clinical implications that affect patient prognosis and treatment strategies. This review will discuss these variant morphologies and their relationship to current understanding of the underlying biology of urothelial carcinoma and molecular classification paradigms.

Urology. 2016 Oct 18 [Epub ahead of print]

James P Solomon, Brett M Lowenthal, A Karim Kader, J Kellogg Parsons, Thomas W Flaig, Arlene O Siefker-Radtke, Lars Dyrskjøt, Donna E Hansel

Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California., Department of Urology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California., Associate Dean for Clinical Research, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado., Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, U.T. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas., Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark., Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California; Department of Urology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California. Electronic address: .

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