A retrospective evaluation of preoperative anemia in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive urothelial urinary bladder cancer, with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) can be associated with anemia, which can lead to more perioperative blood transfusions (PBT). Usage of PBT is associated with worse oncological outcomes. We evaluated the prevalence of preoperative anemia (PA) and the effect on hemoglobin levels depending on surgery timing after NAC.

A retrospective single-center study with 240 consecutive patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) between 2001 and 2014 for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIBC). Anemia was defined according to the WHO classification (male ≤ 130 g/L, female ≤ 120 g/L). Multivariable logistical regression was used to identify factors associated with PA and Pearson correlation for evaluating the change in hemoglobin levels depending on surgery timing.

Overall, 128 (53.3 %) patients were anemic pre-RC and 87 (36.3 %) patients received NAC. In a multivariable analysis, age, receipt of NAC, female gender, and low BMI were independent predictors of PA. In patients receiving NAC, the time to surgery from the last NAC cycle was correlated with the change in hemoglobin levels between the initiation of NAC and surgery.

PA was common in patients undergoing RC for MIBC. Receipt of NAC was found to be a strong predictor of PA.

The emerging treatment of cisplatin based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, confers an increased risk for preoperative anemia. In the management of this malignancy, preoperative anemia renders further attention and focus.

SpringerPlus. 2016 Jul 25*** epublish ***

Gustaf Klinga, Amir Sherif

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden., Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden.

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