Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the urinary bladder are a rare type of tumor that account for a small percentage of urinary bladder neoplasms. These tumors of the urinary bladder range from well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (carcinoids) to the more aggressive subtypes such as small cell carcinoma. Despite the rarity of the neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder, there has been substantial investigation into the underlying genomic, molecular, and the cellular alterations within this group of neoplasms. Accordingly, these findings are increasingly incorporated into the understanding of clinical aspects of these neoplasms. In this review, we provide an overview of recent literature related to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Urinary Bladder. Particular emphasis is placed on molecular alterations and recently described gene expression. The neuroendocrine tumors of the urinary bladder are subdivided into four subtypes. Similar to their pulmonary and other extrapulmonary site counterparts, these have different degrees of neuroendocrine differentiation and morphological features. The clinical aspects of four subtypes of neuroendocrine tumor are discussed with emphasis of the most recent developments in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. An understanding of molecular basis of neuroendocrine tumors will provide a base of knowledge for future investigations into this group of unusual bladder neoplasms.
Endocrine pathology. 2016 Jun 22 [Epub ahead of print]
Erik Kouba, Liang Cheng
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 350 West 11th Street, IUHPL Room 4010, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA., Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 350 West 11th Street, IUHPL Room 4010, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA. .