Future directions in bladder cancer immunotherapy: towards adaptive immunity

The clinical management of bladder cancer has not changed significantly in several decades. In particular, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy has been a mainstay for high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer since the late 1970s/early 1980s.

This is despite the fact that bladder cancer has the highest recurrence rates of any cancer and BCG immunotherapy has not been shown to induce a tumor-specific immune response. We and others have hypothesized that immunotherapies capable of inducing tumor-specific adaptive immunity are needed to impact bladder cancer morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the preclinical and clinical development of bladder cancer immunotherapies with an emphasis on the last 5 years. Expected progress in the near future is also discussed.

Immunotherapy. 2016 Feb 09 [Epub]

Sean G Smith, David A Zaharoff

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA., Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA.

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