The standard treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is transurethral resection (TUR) commonly using a monopolar electrocautery system. This system requires high energy and voltage to allow an electric current to run from the loop to the patient's skin.
The heat generated leads to desiccation of small cells and difficulty to perform adequate histological analysis for severely cauterized pieces of tissues. On contrary, the electric current in bipolar systems does not traverse the patient and hence lower energy and voltage are used and minimal tissue damage is anticipated. In addition, the use of saline as an irrigant fluid eliminates the potential TUR syndrome from excess hypotonic fluid reabsorption. Furthermore, the lower energy dissipates as heat in tissues contributing to adequate hemostasis. This review presents the most recent studies and evidence on the differences between monopolar and bipolar systems for TUR of NMIBC as regards the perioperative and long-term outcomes.
Current urology reports. 2016 Mar [Epub]
Yasser Osman, Ahmed M Harraz
Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, 70th Gomhoria St. , 35516, Mansoura, Egypt. Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, 70th Gomhoria St. , 35516, Mansoura, Egypt.