Therapeutic role of template-based lymphadenectomy in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract

Lymphadenectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract has attracted the attention of physicians. The mapping study of lymphatic spread has shown that a relatively wide area should comprise the regional nodes for tumors of the right renal pelvis or the right upper two-thirds of the ureter.

A prospective study showed that an anatomical template-based lymphadenectomy significantly improved patient survival in tumors of the renal pelvis. This benefit was more evident for patients with pT2 stage tumors or higher. The risk of regional node recurrence is significant reduced by template-based lymphadenectomy, which is likely to be associated with improved patient survival. The removal of lymph node micrometastases is assumed to be the reason for therapeutic benefit following lymphadenectomy. The number of resected lymph nodes can be used to assess the quality of lymphadenectomy, but not to determine the extent of lymphadenectomy. The guidelines currently recommend lymphadenectomy for patients with muscle-invasive disease, even though the current recommendation grades are still low. The present limitation of lymphadenectomy is the lack of standardization of the extent of lymphadenectomy and the randomized trials. Further studies are warranted to collect the evidence to support lymphadenectomy.

World journal of clinical oncology. 2015 Dec 10 [Epub]

Tsunenori Kondo, Toshio Takagi, Kazunari Tanabe

Tsunenori Kondo, Toshio Takagi, Kazunari Tanabe, Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan. , Tsunenori Kondo, Toshio Takagi, Kazunari Tanabe, Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan. , Tsunenori Kondo, Toshio Takagi, Kazunari Tanabe, Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan.

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