Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Pathologic evaluation of urothelial cancers relies predominantly on histomorphologic features but can be aided in a small subset of cases by immunohistochemical analyses.
Distinction of papillary versus flat lesions, low-grade versus high-grade cytology, and histologic variants and the presence or absence of invasive tumor is important for proper clinical management. Advances in the molecular alterations associated with the various subtypes of urothelial carcinoma have been made but such studies are ongoing.
Surgical pathology clinics. 2015 Dec [Epub]
James P Solomon, Donna E Hansel
Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. , Division of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0612, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.