Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by complex networks of molecular alterations and gene expression. This review summarizes some of the recent genomic studies that have further advanced the understanding of the pathways driving bladder cancer, highlighting several important biomarkers and potential targeted therapeutic strategies that are now in clinical trials.
In addition, noninvasive techniques to evaluate biomarkers in patients' urine and serum for early detection and surveillance are discussed.
The Urologic clinics of North America. 2016 Mar [Epub]
George J Netto, Laura J Tafe
Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, MD, USA. Department of Pathology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA; Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, 1 Rope Ferry Rd, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.