The value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS) - Abstract

Department of Urology, Skane University Hospital, Malmö.

Departments of Urology, Pathology, Helsingborg County Hospital, Helsingborg; Division of Urology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Linköping University Hospital, Linköping; Department of Oncology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund; Department of Pathology, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping; Department of Urology, Växjö County Hospital, Växjö, Sweden.



Study Type - Diagnostic (case series) Level of Evidence 4.

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? It is well known that CIS is a major risk factor for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and that this entity can be difficult to diagnose. Taking cold-cup mapping biopsies from different areas of the bladder (BMAP) is commonly used in patients at risk of harbouring CIS. The diagnostic accuracy of this approach has not been assessed until now. By using the CIS found in the cystoprostatectomy specimen as an indicator of the true occurrence of CIS and comparing that with the findings of BMAP, it is clear that the sensitivity of BMAP to detect CIS when present is low and that negative findings should be considered unreliable.

To assess the value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS).  CIS of the urinary bladder is a flat high-grade lesion of the mucosa associated with a significant risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease. CIS is difficult to identify on cystoscopy, and definite diagnosis requires histopathology. Traditionally, if CIS is suspected, multiple cold-cup biopsies are taken from the bladder mucosa, and resection biopsies are obtained from the prostatic urethra in males. This approach is often called bladder mapping (BMAP). The accuracy of BMAP as a diagnostic tool is not known.

Male patients with bladder cancer scheduled for cystectomy underwent cold-cup bladder biopsies (sidewalls, posterior wall, dome, trigone), and resection biopsies were taken from the prostatic urethra.  After cystectomy, the surgical specimen was investigated in a standardised manner and subsequently compared with the BMAP biopsies for the presence of CIS.

The histopathology reports of 162 patients were analysed. CIS was detected in 46% of the cystoprostatectomy specimens, and multiple (≥2) CIS lesions were found in 30%. BMAP (cold-cup bladder biopsies + resection biopsies from the prostatic urethra) provided sensitivity of 51% for any CIS, and 55% for multiple CIS lesions. The cold-cup biopsies for CIS in the bladder mucosa showed sensitivity and specificity of 46% and 89%, respectively.

Traditional cold-cup biopsies are unreliable for detecting CIS in bladder mucosa and negative findings must be interpreted with caution.

Written by:
Gudjónsson S, Bläckberg M, Chebil G, Jahnson S, Olsson H, Bendahl PO, Månsson W, Liedberg F.   Are you the author?

Reference: BJU Int. 2011 Oct 28. Epub ahead of print.
doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10654.x

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 22035276 Bladder Cancer Section


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