BJUI Mini Reviews - Prognostic implications of lymph node involvement in bladder cancer: Are we understaging using current methods?

BERKELEY, CA ( - Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary malignancy, with TCCs comprising ≈90% of primary bladder tumours.

It is estimated that 70,530 individuals in the USA will be diagnosed with bladder cancer and that 14,680 individuals will die from this disease in 2010. Stage is fundamental to patient outcome and relative survival rates for bladder cancer are lower compared with other cancers, such as breast or prostate cancer. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for bladder cancer is 80%, but, with stage progression, this drops dramatically from 92% to 97.2% for carcinoma in situ to a dismal 6–24% in cases of metastatic disease.  Although up to 86% of patients present with superficial or localized tumours, 20–40% present with, or progress to develop, invasive disease which carries a significant increase in the likelihood of having occult metastases...View or save the full text Mini Review as a .pdf file


Kara L. Watts, Benjamin T. Ristau, Harold T. Yamase and John A. Taylor III

TDepartment of Urology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA


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