Neoadjuvant immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy for stage II-III muscle invasive bladder cancer.

Considering the striking evidence revealed by immunotherapy in advanced or metastatic bladder cancer, investigators have explored neoadjuvant immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Currently, there have been a large number of studies reporting varied efficacy and safety of these approaches. Herein, we pooled the available evidence in terms of oncological outcomes (pathological complete response [pCR] and pathological partial response [pPR]) and safety outcomes (immune-related adverse events [irAEs], treatment-related adverse events [TRAEs]), through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting abstracts to identify relevant studies up to June 2022. Studies were included if they evaluated the neoadjuvant immunotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy in MIBC and reported at least the pCR.

A total of 22 records involving 843 patients were included. For pCR of immunotherapy, the pooled rate of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) monotherapy and dual-ICIs therapy was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.3% - 32.8%) and 32.1% (95%CI: 20.6% - 43.7%), respectively. For pCR of chemoimmunotherapy, the overall pooled rate was 42.6% (95% CI: 34.9% - 50.2%). Subgroup of gemcitabine/cisplatin (GC) plus ICI had a pCR rate of 41.7% (95%CI: 35.8% - 47.5%). In terms of safety, the pooled rate of Grade≥3 irAEs was 11.7% (95% CI: 6.5%-16.9%). In subgroup analysis, the Grade≥3 irAEs rate of ICI monotherapy, dual-ICIs therapy, and GC plus ICI therapy was 7.4% (95% CI: 4.3%-10.5%), 30.3% (95% CI: 15.3%-45.3%), and 14.5% (95% CI: 3.5% - 25.4%), respectively. Besides, the pooled Grade≥3 TRAEs rate for chemoimmunotherapy was 32.4% (95% CI: 13.1% - 51.6%).

Neoadjuvant immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy were effective and safe in the treatment of MIBC. Compared to ICI monotherapy, dual-ICIs therapy or chemoimmunotherapy can improve the response rate, while increasing the morbidity of Grade≥ 3 irAEs or Grade≥ 3 TRAEs., identifier CRD4202233771.

Frontiers in immunology. 2022 Aug 17*** epublish ***

Hualin Chen, Wenjie Yang, Xiaoqiang Xue, Yingjie Li, Zhaoheng Jin, Zhigang Ji

Department of Urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.