The association between frailty, hypogonadism, and postoperative outcomes among men undergoing radical cystectomy.

Hypogonadism is associated with frailty, lower health-related quality of life, decreased muscle mass, and premature mortality, which may predispose patients to poor postoperative outcomes. We aimed to determine the prevalence of hypogonadism in men undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) and whether hypogonadism and frailty are associated with adverse postoperative outcomes.

The IBM MarketScan database was used to identify men who underwent RC between 2012 and 2021. Frailty was determined using published Hospital Frailty Risk Score ranges. Patients were considered to have hypogonadism if diagnosed within 5 years prior to RC. Length of stay (LOS), complications, emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient readmissions were compared. Sub-group analysis of men with hypogonadism was performed to determine the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on clinical outcomes.

Among 3,727 men who underwent RC, 226 (6.1%) had a diagnosis of hypogonadism. Overall, 565 (15.2%) men were low-risk frailty, 2,214 (59.4%) intermediate-risk frailty, and 948 (25.4%) were high-risk frailty, and men with hypogonadism were significantly more frail compared to men without hypogonadism (P = 0.027). There was no significant difference in LOS, complications, or rate of ED visits and inpatient readmissions between cohorts (P > 0.05). However, high-risk frailty was associated with an increased risk of 90-day ED visit (HR 1.19, 95%CI 1.00-1.41, P = 0.049) and 90-day readmission (HR 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.97, P < 0.001) after RC. Among men with hypogonadism, 58 (25.7%) were on TRT. There was no significant difference in frailty, LOS, complications, or 90-day ED visits or 90-day inpatient readmissions between patient with hypogonadism prescribed TRT and those without TRT.

These findings suggest that hypogonadism and preoperative frailty may be important to evaluate prior to undergoing RC.

Urologic oncology. 2024 Jan 22 [Epub ahead of print]

Daniel R Greenberg, Stephen Rhodes, Hriday P Bhambhvani, Luis C Gago, Edward M Schaeffer, Joshua J Meeks, Robert E Brannigan, Jonathan E Shoag, Joshua A Halpern

Department of Urology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. Electronic address: ., University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH., Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medicine James Buchanan Brady Foundation, New York, NY., Department of Urology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL., Department of Urology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.