OncoTherad® is an immunomodulator of biological response that downregulate RANK/RANKL signaling pathway and PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

Bladder cancer is the second most common urinary tract cancer. Above 70% of the occurrence of bladder cancer is superficial (pTis, pTa, and pT1), non-muscle invasive tumor (NMIBC), and the incidence of invasive disease is occasional. Treatments for NMIBC consist of transurethral resection (TUR) and subsequently intravesical immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), intending to prevent tumor progression and decrease recurrence. However, 20-30% of these tumors have progression, and 70% have a recurrence after exclusive TUR treatment. The immunomodulator of biological response, OncoTherad®, is an attractive potential to revolutionize cancer therapy. In our previous studies with mice, the results showed that treatment with OncoTherad® reduced 100% of tumor progression in NMIBC through the activation of Toll-Like Receptors' non-canonical pathway.

 In the present study, 36 female C57Bl/6J mice were divided into 6 groups (n = 6/group): Control, Cancer, Cancer + BCG, Cancer + OncoTherad® (MRB-CFI-1), Cancer + P14-16 and Cancer + CFI-1. NMIBC was chemically induced and the treatments were followed for 6 weeks. A week after the last dose of treatment, animals were euthanized, the bladder was collected and routinely processed for immunohistochemical analyses of RANK, RANKL, FOXP3, and PD-1/PD-L1, such as PD-1/PD-L1 western blotting.

The immunohistochemical results showed that OncoTherad® reduced RANK and RANKL immunoreactivities compared to the cancer group, which indicates a good prognosis. Immunohistochemical and western blotting analyses confirmed that OncoTherad® modulated PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint.

Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology. 2022 Nov 02 [Epub]

Ianny Brum Reis, Luiz Henrique Soares Tibo, Bianca Ribeiro de Souza, Nelson Durán, Wagner José Fávaro

Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Humaitá, 1680-Centro, Araraquara, SP, CEP 14801-903, Brazil. ., Institute of Biology, Universidade Estadual de Campinas/UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil.