A Comprehensive Analysis of Immune Response in Patients with Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.

Bladder carcinoma has elevated morbimortality due to its high recurrence and progression in localized disease. A better understanding of the role of the tumor microenvironment in carcinogenesis and response to treatment is needed.

Peripheral blood and samples of urothelial bladder cancer and adjacent healthy urothelial tissue were collected from 41 patients and stratified in low- and high-grade urothelial bladder cancer, excluding muscular infiltration or carcinoma in situ. Mononuclear cells were isolated and labeled for flow cytometry analysis with antibodies aimed at identifying specific subpopulations within T lymphocytes, myeloid cells and NK cells.

In peripheral blood and tumor samples, we detected different percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, monocyte and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, as well as differential expression of activation- and exhaustion-related markers. Conversely, only a significant increase in bladder total monocytes was found when comparing bladder and tumor samples. Interestingly, we identified specific markers differentially expressed in the peripheral blood of patients with different outcomes.

The analysis of host immune response in patients with NMIBC may help to identify specific markers that allow optimizing therapy and patient follow-up. Further investigation is needed to establish a strong predictive model.

Cancers. 2023 Feb 21*** epublish ***

Guillermo Celada Luis, Eduardo Albers Acosta, Hortensia de la Fuente, Clara Velasco Balanza, Montserrat Arroyo Correas, Nuria Romero-Laorden, Arantzazu Alfranca, Carlos Olivier Gómez

Department of Urology, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, 28006 Madrid, Spain., Department of Immunology, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, 28006 Madrid, Spain., Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario La Princesa, 28006 Madrid, Spain.