Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Radical Cystectomy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Analysis of Efficacy and Safety in 119 Patients.

Cisplatin-based systemic chemotherapy is recommended as neoadjuvant treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) before radical cystectomy (RC). However, clinical challenges include the possibility of primary chemoresistance and limited feasibility in patients with renal impairment. This study investigated the efficacy and safety profiles of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by RC.

We retrospectively analyzed 119 patients with nonmetastatic MIBC, who were pathologically diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma and underwent NCRT before RC. The pathological response to NCRT was evaluated using RC specimens. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were compared according to pathological responses to NCRT.

Of the 119 patients, 111 (93%) underwent RC; ypT0 and downstaging to ≤ypT1 were observed in 42 (38%) and 76 (68%) patients, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, smaller tumor size was independently associated with ypT0. During a median follow-up of 5.2 years, 28 (25%) patients developed recurrence and 22 (20%) died of bladder cancer after RC. The 5-year RFS and CSS rates were 75% and 80%, respectively. The 5-year RFS rates in patients with ypT0, ypTa/is/1, and ≥ypT2 were 87%, 87%, and 46%, respectively. Similarly, patients with ypT0 and ypTa/is/1 had more favorable CSS (90% and 87% at 5 years, respectively) than those with ≥ypT2 (60%, P = .001). None of the patients experienced ≥grade 4 adverse events related to NCRT or ≥grade 4 complications of RC.

This study demonstrated sufficient efficacy and safety profile of NCRT followed by RC. Chemoradiotherapy may be a helpful alternative for neoadjuvant treatment before RC.

Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2023 Nov 02 [Epub ahead of print]

Motohiro Fujiwara, Hajime Tanaka, Masaki Kobayashi, Yuki Nakamura, Bo Fan, Yudai Ishikawa, Shohei Fukuda, Kazuma Toda, Soichiro Yoshida, Minato Yokoyama, Ryoichi Yoshimura, Yasuhisa Fujii

Department of Urology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan., Department of Urology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: ., Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.