The objective of this work is to evaluate the additional oncological benefit of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) using blue-light cystoscopy in transurethral resection (TURBT) for primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) based on the International Bladder Cancer Group (IBCG)-defined progression and the subsequent pathological pathways.
We reviewed 1578 consecutive primary NMIBC patients undergoing white-light TURBT (WL-TURBT) or PDD-TURBT during 2006-2020. One-to-one propensity score-matching was performed using multivariable logistic regression to obtain balanced groups. IBCG-defined progression of NMIBC included stage-up and grade-up as well as conventional definitions such as the development of muscle-invasive BC or metastatic disease. Nine oncological endpoints were evaluated. Sankey diagrams were generated to visualize follow-up pathological pathways after the initial TURBT.
Comparison of event-free survival between the matched groups revealed that PDD use decreased the bladder cancer recurrence risk and IBCG-defined progression risk, whereas no significant difference was noted in conventionally defined progression. This was attributable to a reduced risk of stage-up, from Ta to T1, and grade-up. Sankey diagrams of the matched groups showed that patients with primary Ta low-grade tumour and first-recurrence Ta low-grade tumour did not have bladder recurrence or progression, while some of those in the WL-TURBT group developed recurrence after treatment.
The multiple survival analysis demonstrated that the risk of IBCG-defined progression was significantly decreased by PDD use in NMIBC patients. Sankey diagrams revealed possible differences in pathological pathways after the initial TURBT between the two groups, demonstrating that repeated recurrence could be prevented by PDD use.
BJUI compass. 2023 Jan 13*** epublish ***
Makito Miyake, Nobutaka Nishimura, Tomonori Nakahama, Koshiro Nishimoto, Masafumi Oyama, Yuto Matsushita, Hideaki Miyake, Hideo Fukuhara, Keiji Inoue, Keita Kobayashi, Hiroaki Matsumoto, Hideyasu Matsuyama, Tomomi Fujii, Yoshihiko Hirao, Kiyohide Fujimoto
Department of Urology Nara Medical University Kashihara Nara Japan., Department of Uro-Oncology Saitama Medical University International Medical Center Hidaka Saitama Japan., Department of Urology Hamamatsu University School of Medicine Hamamatsu Shizuoka Japan., Department of Urology Kochi Medical School Nankoku Kochi Japan., Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine Yamaguchi University Ube Yamaguchi Japan., Department of Diagnostic Pathology Nara Medical University Kashihara Nara Japan., Department of Urology Osaka Gyoumeikan Hospital Konohana-ku Osaka Japan.