Effective-by-method for the preparation of folic acid coated TiO2 nanoparticles with high targeting potential for apoptosis induction against bladder cancer cells (T24).

The research's goal is to create the surfaces of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a layer of folic acid that can effectively target human bladder cancer cells (T24).

An efficient method for creating FA-coated TiO2 NPs was used, and many tools have been used to analyze its physicochemical properties. The cytotoxic effects of FA-coated NPs on T24 cells and the mechanisms of apoptosis generation were examined employing a variety of methodologies.

The prepared FA-coated TiO2 NPs suspensions with a hydrodynamic diameter around 37 nm and a negative surface charge of - 30 mV, reduced T24 cell proliferation with stronger IC50 value (21.8 ± 1.9 μg/ml) than TiO2 NPs (47.8 ± 2.5 μg/ml). This toxicity resulted in apoptosis induction (16.63%) that was caused through enhanced reactive oxygen species formation and stopping the cell cycle over G2/M phase. Moreover, FA- TiO2 NPs raised the expression levels of P53, P21, BCL2L4, and cleaved Caspase-3, while decreasing Bcl-2, Cyclin B, and CDK1 in treated cells.

Overall, these findings revealed efficient targeting of the FA- TiO2 NPs resulted in increasing cellular internalization caused increased apoptosis in T24 cells. As a result, FA- TiO2 NPs might be a viable treatment for human bladder cancer.

Biotechnology and applied biochemistry. 2023 Mar 11 [Epub ahead of print]

Demiana H Hanna, Marina M Aziz, E El Shafee

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.