Modern advances in genomic and molecular technologies have sparked substantial research on the human intestinal microbiome over the past decade. A deeper understanding of the microbiome has illuminated that dysbiosis, or a disruption in the microbiome, is associated with inflammatory disease states and carcinogenesis. Novel therapies that target the microbiome and restore healthy flora may have value in dampening the immunopathologic state induced by dysbiosis. A narrative review of the literature on the use of microbiota-centered interventions (MCIs) was conducted. Several randomized clinical trials show that MCIs can augment response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy in patients with metastatic cancer. Clinical trials have also demonstrated that modulation of the intestinal microbiome can enhance recovery and reduce infectious complications in the surgical management of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Overall, these major discoveries suggest future clinical applications of MCIs for a wide range of immune-mediated conditions. These results may also translate to improved patient outcomes in systemic immunotherapy for urothelial carcinoma as well as in patients recovering from radical cystectomy (RC), which is complicated by high infection rates. Further research is needed to evaluate the optimal bacterial composition of microbiota-centered therapies and the specific cellular changes that lead to improved tumor antigen recognition after microbiota-centered therapies.
Technology in cancer research & treatment. 2023 Jan [Epub]
Jake C Drobner, Benjamin J Lichtbroun, Eric A Singer, Saum Ghodoussipour
Division of Urologic Oncology, 145249Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and 549472Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA., Division of Urologic Oncology, 549472The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USA.