To perform a narrative review of the contemporary literature on the diagnosis, prognosis and adjuvant management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients with pathological pelvic lymph node involvement (pN+) at radical cystectomy.
A narrative review of the contemporary literature available on Medline was conducted to report studies evaluating the diagnosis, prognosis and/or adjuvant treatments for MIBC patients with pN+ disease at radical cystectomy.
Open or robotic extended pelvic lymph node dissection up to the crossing of the ureter with common iliac vessels can enhance the diagnosis of pN+ MIBC, especially using separate packages for the submission of a maximum number of lymph nodes. The main prognosis factors for pN+ patients are the number of positive and retrieved lymph nodes, lymph node density, extranodal extension as well as lymph node metastasis diameter. Adjuvant chemotherapy is likely to prolong overall survival in pN+ patients treated with radical cystectomy alone while adjuvant immunotherapy using nivolumab has been shown to decrease the risk of recurrence in all pN+ patients, especially those with ypN+ disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy. However, few data are currently available on the role of adjuvant radiation therapy, which remains currently experimental for these patients.
Multiple parameters have been reported to impact the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with pN+ MIBC at radical cystectomy. Adjuvant management is currently based on chemotherapy and immunotherapy with preliminary data on radiation therapy.
Progres en urologie : journal de l'Association francaise d'urologie et de la Societe francaise d'urologie. 2023 Jan 03 [Epub ahead of print]
P-E Gabriel, U Pinar, J Parra, C Vaessen, P Mozer, E Chartier-Kastler, M Rouprêt, T Seisen
Sorbonne université, GRC n(o) 5, onco-urologie prédictive, AP-HP, hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, service d'urologie, 75013 Paris, France. Electronic address: ., Sorbonne université, GRC n(o) 5, onco-urologie prédictive, AP-HP, hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, service d'urologie, 75013 Paris, France.