Allyl-, Butyl- and Phenylethyl-Isothiocyanate Modulate Akt-mTOR and Cyclin-CDK Signaling in Gemcitabine- and Cisplatin-Resistant Bladder Cancer Cell Lines.

Combined cisplatin-gemcitabine treatment causes rapid resistance development in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma. The present study investigated the potential of the natural isothiocyanates (ITCs) allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), butyl-isothiocyanate (BITC), and phenylethyl-isothiocyanate (PEITC) to suppress growth and proliferation of gemcitabine- and cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cells lines. Sensitive and gemcitabine- and cisplatin-resistant RT112, T24, and TCCSUP cells were treated with the ITCs, and tumor cell growth, proliferation, and clone formation were evaluated. Apoptosis induction and cell cycle progression were investigated as well. The molecular mode of action was investigated by evaluating cell cycle-regulating proteins (cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins A and B) and the mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR)-AKT signaling pathway. The ITCs significantly inhibited growth, proliferation and clone formation of all tumor cell lines (sensitive and resistant). Cells were arrested in the G2/M phase, independent of the type of resistance. Alterations of both the CDK-cyclin axis and the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway were observed in AITC-treated T24 cells with minor effects on apoptosis induction. In contrast, AITC de-activated Akt-mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis in RT112 cells, with only minor effects on CDK expression. It is concluded that AITC, BITC, and PEITC exert tumor-suppressive properties on cisplatin- and gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer cells, whereby the molecular action may differ among the cell lines. The integration of these ITCs into the gemcitabine-/cisplatin-based treatment regimen might optimize bladder cancer therapy.

International journal of molecular sciences. 2022 Sep 20*** epublish ***

Jochen Rutz, Sebastian Maxeiner, Timothy Grein, Marlon Sonnenburg, Salma El Khadir, Nino Makhatelashvili, Johanna Mann, Hui Xie, Jindrich Cinatl, Anita Thomas, Felix K-H Chun, Axel Haferkamp, Roman A Blaheta, Igor Tsaur

Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Medical Center Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany., Department of Urology, Goethe-University, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany., Institute of Medical Virology, Goethe-University, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

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