Investigation of Bladder Cancer Cell Response to Cryoablation and Adjunctive Cisplatin Based Cryo/Chemotherapy.

Due to a rising annual incidence of bladder cancer, there is a growing need for development of new strategies for treatment. In 2018, the World Cancer Research Fund and other groups reported that there were ~550,000 new cases worldwide of bladder cancer. It has been further estimated that >200,000 individuals die annually from bladder cancer worldwide. Various treatment options exist. However, many if not all remain suboptimal. While the preferred chemotherapeutic options have changed in the past few years there have been few advances in the bladder cancer medical device field. Cryoablation is now being evaluated as a new option for the treatment of bladder cancer. While several studies have shown cryoablation to be promising for the treatment of bladder cancer, a lack of basic information pertaining to dosing (minimal lethal temperature) necessary to destroy bladder cancer has limited its use as a primary therapeutic option. Concerns with bladder wall perforation and other side effects have also slowed adoption. In an effort to detail the effects of freezing on bladder cancer, two human bladder cancer cell lines, SCaBER and UMUC3, were evaluated in vitro. SCaBER, a basal subtype of muscle invasive bladder cancer, and UMUC3, an intermediate transitional cell carcinoma, are both difficult to treat but are reportedly responsive to most conventional treatments. SCaBER and UMUC3 cells were exposed to a range of freezing temperatures from -10 to -25°C and compared to non-frozen controls. The data show that a single 5 minute freeze to -10°C did not affect cell viability, whereas -15°C and -20°C results in a significant reduction in viability 1 day post freeze to <20%. These populations, however, were able to recover in culture. A complete loss of cell viability was found following a single freeze at -25°C. Application of a repeat (double) freeze resulted in complete cell death at -20°C. In addition to freezing alone, studies investigating the impact of adjunctive low dose (1 μM) cisplatin pre-treatment (30 minutes and 24 hours) in combination with freezing were conducted. The combination of 30 minute cisplatin pre-treatment and mild (-15°C) freezing resulted in complete cell death. This suggests that subclinical doses of cisplatin may be synergistically effective when combined with freezing. In summary, these in vitro results suggest that freezing to temperatures in the range of -20 to 25°C results in a high degree of bladder cancer cell destruction. Further, the data describe a potential combinatorial chemo/cryo therapeutic strategy for the treatment of bladder cancer.

Clinical research (Milpitas, Calif.). 2020 Feb 07 [Epub]

Kimberly L Santucci, John M Baust, Kristi K Snyder, Robert G Van Buskirk, Aaron Katz, Anthony Corcoran, John G Baust

CPSI Biotech, Owego, USA., Department of Urology, NYU Winthrop Hospital, US., Center for Translational Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Binghamton University, USA.

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