Contemporary Trends of Systemic Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Intravesical Chemotherapy in Patients With Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas Undergoing Minimally Invasive or Open Radical Nephroureterectomy: Analysis of US Claims on Perioperative Outcomes and Hea

New evidence indicates that minimally invasive surgery (MIS) (laparoscopic or robotic-assisted [LNU, RANU]) reaches oncologic equivalence compared with Open Radical Nephroureterectomy (ORNU) for high-risk upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Recently, European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines suggested implementing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to standard treatment to improve oncologic outcomes of high-risk UTUC. We aimed (1) To explore contemporary trends of MIS for RNU in the United States and to compare perioperative outcomes and costs with that of ORNU. (2) To determine the trends of NAC and postoperative intravesical chemotherapy (PIC) administration for high-risk UTUC and to assess their contribution to perioperative outcomes and costs.

The Optum Clinformatics Data Mart de-identified database was queried from 2003 to 2018 to retrospectively examine patients who had undergone LNU/RANU or ORNU with or without NAC and PIC. We evaluated temporal adoption trends, complications, and health care cost analyses. We obtained descriptive statistics and utilized multivariable regression modeling to assess outcomes.

A total of n = 492 ORNU and n = 1618 LNU/RANU procedures were reviewed. The MIS approach was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of intraoperative complications (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR], 0.48, 95% CI:0.24-0.96), risk of hospitalization costs (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI:0.49-0.78), and shorter hospital stay (aOR: 0.20, 95% CI:0.15-0.26) when compared to ORNU. Overall, adoption of NAC and PIC accounted for only n = 81 and n < 37 cases respectively. The implementation of NAC and higher number of cycles were associated with an increased probability of any complication rate (aOR: 2.06, 95% CI:1.26-3.36) and hospital costs (aOR: 2.12, 95% CI:1.33-3.38).

MIS has become the approach of choice for RNU in the US. Although recommended by guidelines, neither NAC nor postoperative bladder instillation of chemotherapy has been routinely incorporated into the clinical practice of patients with UTUC.

Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2021 Dec 24 [Epub ahead of print]

Francesco Del Giudice, Stefanie van Uem, Shufeng Li, Fernandino L Vilson, Alessandro Sciarra, Stefano Salciccia, Gian Maria Busetto, Martina Maggi, Letizia Tiberia, Pietro Viscuso, Vittorio Canale, Valeria Panebianco, Martina Pecoraro, Matteo Ferro, Marco Moschini, Wojciech Krajewski, David D'Andrea, Giovanni E Cacciamani, Andrea Mari, Francesco Soria, Francesco Porpiglia, Cristian Fiori, Daniele Amparore, Enrico Checcucci, Riccardo Autorino, Ettore De Berardinis, Benjamin I Chung

Department of Maternal Infant and Urologic Sciences, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161, Rome, Italy; Department of Urology, Stanford Medical Center, Stanford, CA. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, Stanford Medical Center, Stanford, CA., Department of Maternal Infant and Urologic Sciences, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161, Rome, Italy., Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, University of Foggia, Policlinico Riuniti, Foggia, Italy., Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Sapienza University/Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Italy., Department of Urology, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy., Department of Urology, Luzerner Kantonsspital, Lucerne, Switzerland; Division of Experimental Oncology/Unit of Urology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy., Department of Minimally Invasive and Robotic Urology, University Center of Excellence in Urology Wrocław Medical University, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria., USC Institute of Urology and Catherine & Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA., Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Oncologic Minimally-Invasive Urology and Andrology, Careggi University Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy., Department of Urology, Molinette Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy., Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, San Luigi Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy., Division of Urology, VCU Health System, Richmond, VA.

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