Optimizing Nutritional Status in Patients Undergoing Radical Cystectomy: A Systematic Scoping Review.

Nutrition is a modifiable risk factor for patients undergoing multimodal oncologic interventions and plays a major supportive role in the setting of bladder cancer. For patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC), malnutrition is associated with increased postoperative complications and mortality.

The purpose of this scoping review is to characterize the role of nutritional interventions for patients undergoing RC for bladder cancer.

A multi-database systematic scoping review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines was performed. Search terms were developed a priori to identify clinical trials that focused on nutritional interventions for patients with bladder cancer undergoing RC. Eligible articles were original research articles or abstracts from clinical trials evaluating nutritional interventions in adult patients undergoing RC. Articles were excluded if they did not focus on a nutritional intervention, if patients did not carry a diagnosis of bladder cancer, or if RC was not performed. Articles were reviewed independently by the authors, and inclusion/exclusion were based on consensus agreement.

A total of 83 articles were identified, of which 17 were included in the final analysis. A total of 49 articles were excluded during abstract screening. An additional 17 articles were excluded based on the review of full-text articles. Results of the scoping review suggest that data on the use of nutritional screening, assessment, and intervention for patients undergoing RC are scarce. Although parenteral nutrition (PN) appears to be associated with greater complications after RC, early introduction of food postoperatively or feeding enterally offers benefit and immunonutrition supplements with a focus on a high protein diet has the potential to better optimize surgical outcomes.

Although the prevalence and consequences of malnutrition among patients undergoing RC are well-established, there are limited data evaluating the use of nutritional screening, assessment, and interventions for this population. The pursuit of future clinical trials in this space is critical.

Bladder cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2021 Dec 13 [Epub]

Syed M Alam, Carrie Michel, Hilary Robertson, Juliana T Camargo, Brenda Linares, Jeffrey Holzbeierlein, Jill Hamilton-Reeves

Department of Urology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA., Department of Research and Learning, Dykes Library, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

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