The benefit of a neoadjuvant instillation of chemotherapy in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: Interim analysis of the PRECAVE randomized clinical trial.

Although an immediate postoperative instillation of chemotherapy (IPOIC) after transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) is recommended for the prevention of recurrences of non-muscleinvasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), evidence shows there is an important compliance failure worldwide. We believe that an immediate neoadjuvant instillation of chemotherapy (INAIC) can act similarly, reducing the recurrence risk of NMIBC. Here we present the interim analysis of the PRECAVE clinical trial.

Patients with clinically diagnosed NMIBC were randomized to receive an INAIC with mitomycin C before TURBT (Group A) or to a control group with TURBT only (Group B). Primary end point was to compare the efficacy of an INAIC in the early recurrence-free survival (RFS). Secondary end points were: RFS in patients who did not receive adjuvant treatments, toxicity, and feasibility.

A total of 124 patients with Ta/T1 G1-G3NMIBC were included in the initial analysis (Group A:64, Group B: 60). Demographics, risk classification, complications, and adjuvant treatments were balanced between groups. Eighty-four patients (Group A: 45, Group B: 39) who completed a one-year follow-up were included in the efficacy analysis and no difference was observed in the RFS between groups (p=0.3). In the subgroup of patients who did not receive adjuvant treatments, we found a significant difference in favor of an INAIC (p=0.009) and an 80% reduction in the risk of early recurrences (Hazard Ratio: 0.20; 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.81; p=0.0024). No differences were observed in adverse events. Only 4 patients did not receive an INAIC despite being planned.

In this interim analysis, although we could not demonstrate a reduction in the RFS of all patients, we did find a significant decrease of recurrences in patients who did not receive adjuvant treatments. The administration of an INAIC seems to be safe and our protocol appears feasible and reproductive.

Aunque el uso de una instilación postoperatoria inmediata de quimioterapia (IPOIQ) tras una resección transuretral vesical (RTUV) esta recomendada para prevenir recurrencias de carcinoma vesical no músculo invasivo (CVNMI), no se llega a realizar en muchos casos debido a fallos en su cumplimiento. Nosotros creemos que una instilación neoadyuvante inmediata de quimioterapia (INAIQ) puede actuar de manera similar reduciendo el riesgo de recurrencias. Presentamos el análisis intermedio del ensayo clínico PRECAVE.MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se aleatorizó a pacientes diagnosticados de CVNMI a recibir una INAIQ con mitomicina C antes de la RTUV (Grupo A) o a un grupo control con RTUV solamente (Grupo B). El objetivo primario fue comparar la eficacia de una INAIQ en la supervivencia libre de recurrencia (SLR) temprana. Los objetivos secundarios fueron la SLR en pacientes que no recibieron tratamientos adyuvantes, toxicidad y viabilidad.

Analizamos un total de 124 pacientes con CVNMI Ta/T1G1-G3 fueron analizados (Grupo A:64, Grupo B: 60). No se encontraron diferencias entre datos demográficos, grupos de riesgo, complicaciones o tratamientos adyuvantes. Para el análisis de eficacias e incluyeron 84 pacientes (Grupo A: 45, Grupo B:39) con al menos un año de seguimiento, sin observar diferencias en la SLR (p=0,3). Sin embargo, en el subgrupo que no recibió tratamientos adyuvantes, sí encontramos una diferencia significativa a favor de la INAIQ (p=0,009), y una reducción del riesgo de recurrencias tempranas del 80% (Hazard Ratio: 0,20; intervalo de confianza 95%: 0,05-0,81; p=0,0024). No se observaron diferencias en la aparición de eventos adversos. Solo 4 pacientes no recibieron un INAIC a pesar de estar planificado.

En este análisis intermedio, aunque no pudimos demostrar una reducción en la SLR de todos los pacientes, sí encontramos una diferencia en el subgrupo que no recibió tratamientos adyuvantes. La administración de una INAIC parece ser segura, y nuestro protocolo parece factible y reproducible.

Archivos espanoles de urologia. 2021 Nov [Epub]

Diego M Carrión, Juan Gómez Rivas, Alfredo Aguilera Bazán, Cristina Ballesteros Ruiz, Mario Álvarez-Maestro, Emilio Ríos González, Luis Martínez-Piñeiro

Department of Urology. La Paz University Hospital. Madrid. Spain. Autonomous University of Madrid. Madrid. Spain. La Paz University Hospital Institute of Health Research (IdiPAZ). Madrid. Spain. European Association of Urology - Young Academic Urologists (EAU-YAU). Urothelial Cancer Working Group., Department of Urology. La Paz University Hospital. Madrid. Spain. Autonomous University of Madrid. Madrid. Spain. La Paz University Hospital Institute of Health Research (IdiPAZ). Madrid. Spain., Department of Urology. La Paz University Hospital. Madrid. Spain. Autonomous University of Madrid. Madrid. Spain.

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