Synergistic antitumor activity of pan-PI3K inhibition and immune checkpoint blockade in bladder cancer.

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) induces durable response in approximately 20% of patients with advanced bladder urothelial cancer (aUC). Over 50% of aUCs harbor genomic alterations along the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. The goal of this project was to determine the synergistic effects and mechanisms of action of PI3K inhibition and ICB combination in aUC.

Alterations affecting the PI3K pathway were examined in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Cancer Dependency Map databases. Human and mouse cells with Pten deletion were used for in vitro studies. C57BL/6 mice carrying syngeneic tumors were used to determine in vivo activity, mechanisms of action and secondary resistance of pan-PI3K inhibition, ICB and combination.

Alterations along the PI3K pathway occurred in 57% of aUCs in TCGA. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) knockout of PIK3CA induced pronounced inhibition of cell proliferation (p=0.0046). PI3K inhibition suppressed cancer cell growth, migration and colony formation in vitro. Pan-PI3K inhibition, antiprogrammed death 1 (aPD1) therapy and combination improved the overall survival (OS) of syngeneic mice with PTEN-deleted tumors from 27 days of the control to 48, 37, and 65 days, respectively. In mice with tumors not containing a PI3K pathway alteration, OS was prolonged by the combination but not single treatments. Pan-PI3K inhibition significantly upregulated CD80, CD86, MHC-I, and MHC-II in dendritic cells, and downregulated the transforming growth factor beta pathway with a false discovery rate-adjusted q value of 0.001. Interferon alpha response was significantly upregulated with aPD1 therapy (q value: <0.001) and combination (q value: 0.027). Compared with the control, combination treatment increased CD8+ T-cell infiltration (p=0.005), decreased Treg-cell infiltration (p=0.036), and upregulated the expression of multiple immunostimulatory cytokines and granzyme B (p<0.01). Secondary resistance was associated with upregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and multiple Sprr family genes.

The combination Pan-PI3K inhibition and ICB has significant antitumor effects in aUC with or without activated PI3K pathway and warrants further clinical investigation. This combination creates an immunostimulatory tumor milieu. Secondary resistance is associated with upregulation of the mTOR pathway and Sprr family genes.

Journal for immunotherapy of cancer. 2021 Nov [Epub]

Shaoming Zhu, A-Hong Ma, Zheng Zhu, Elio Adib, Ting Rao, Na Li, Kaiyuan Ni, Veera Chandra Sekhar Reddy Chittepu, Rao Prabhala, Juan Garisto Risco, David Kwiatkowski, Kent Mouw, Guru Sonpavde, Fan Cheng, Chong-Xian Pan

Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA., Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA., Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA., Department of Bioengienering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA., Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA., Department of Urology, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA., Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA., Department of Urology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China ., Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA .

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