Predictive models of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer using nuclear morphology and tissue architecture.

Characterizing likelihood of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is an important yet unmet challenge. In this study, a machine-learning framework is developed using imaging of biopsy pathology specimens to generate models of likelihood of NAC response. Developed using cross-validation (evaluable N = 66) and an independent validation cohort (evaluable N = 56), our models achieve promising results (65%-73% accuracy). Interestingly, one model-using features derived from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissues in conjunction with clinico-demographic features-is able to stratify the cohort into likely responders in cross-validation and the validation cohort (response rate of 65% for predicted responder compared with the 41% baseline response rate in the validation cohort). The results suggest that computational approaches applied to routine pathology specimens of MIBC can capture differences between responders and non-responders to NAC and should therefore be considered in the future design of precision oncology for MIBC.

Cell reports. Medicine. 2021 Aug 27*** epublish ***

Haoyang Mi, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Max Kates, Roland Seiler, Peter C Black, Aleksander S Popel, Alexander S Baras

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA., Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA., James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA., Department of Urology, University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland., Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

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