Existing literature suggests that bladder cancer (BC) outcome may be improved when patients use 5α-reductase inhibitors and/or α1-blockers, but such a conclusion may be subject to publication bias. We evaluated whether preoperative use of 5α-reductase inhibitors or α1-blockers was associated with improved clinical outcomes in a cohort of patients with BC undergoing radical cystectomy (RC).
Using provincial health administrative databases, we retrospectively identified male BC patients undergoing RC in Quebec province between 2000 and 2015, and we collected data from 2 years before RC until December 2016 or death. Survival analyses were conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, propensity score matching, and uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Covariates included age, Charlson's comorbidity index, region of residence, year of RC, distance to hospital, hospital type, annual RC volume of each hospital and surgeon, neoadjuvant chemotherapy use, and type of bladder diversion.
Of the 2822 patients included, 284 patients used 5α-reductase inhibitors and 1001 patients used α1-blockers prior to surgery. Median follow-up time was 7.7 years. Patients who used 5α-reductase inhibitors or α1-blockers were generally older, had more comorbidities, and were treated more recently in academic centers. Overall, bladder cancer-specific and recurrence-free survival did not differ significantly between those using 5α-reductase inhibitors prior to surgery and controls who never used 5α-reductase inhibitors. Adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.21) for overall survival, 1.12 (95% CI, 0.92-1.36) for bladder cancer-specific survival, and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.99-1.42) for recurrence-free survival. The aforementioned outcomes were significantly worse in patients who used α1-blockers prior to surgery compared to controls, with respective adjusted hazard ratios of 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04-1.27), 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35), and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.05-1.33).
Preoperative use of 5α-reductase inhibitors and α1-blockers did not improve clinical outcome in our cohort of male patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer.
Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2021 Feb 06 [Epub ahead of print]
Michel D Wissing, Ana O'Flaherty, Alice Dragomir, Simon Tanguay, Wassim Kassouf, Armen G Aprikian
Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address: ., Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada., Department of Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.