Present Status, Limitations and Future Directions of Treatment Strategies Using Fucoidan-Based Therapies in Bladder Cancer.

Bladder cancer (BC) is a common urological cancer, with poor prognosis for advanced/metastatic stages. Various intensive treatments, including radical cystectomy, chemotherapy, immune therapy, and radiotherapy are commonly used for these patients. However, these treatments often cause complications and adverse events. Therefore, researchers are exploring the efficacy of natural product-based treatment strategies in BC patients. Fucoidan, derived from marine brown algae, is recognized as a multi-functional and safe substrate, and has been reported to have anti-cancer effects in various types of malignancies. Additionally, in vivo and in vitro studies have reported the protective effects of fucoidan against cancer-related cachexia and chemotherapeutic agent-induced adverse events. In this review, we have introduced the anti-cancer effects of fucoidan extracts in BC and highlighted its molecular mechanisms. We have also shown the anti-cancer effects of fucoidan therapy with conventional chemotherapeutic agents and new treatment strategies using fucoidan-based nanoparticles in various malignancies. Moreover, apart from the improvement of anti-cancer effects by fucoidan, its protective effects against cancer-related disorders and cisplatin-induced toxicities have been introduced. However, the available information is insufficient to conclude the clinical usefulness of fucoidan-based treatments in BC patients. Therefore, we have indicated the aspects that need to be considered regarding fucoidan-based treatments and future directions for the treatment of BC.

Cancers. 2020 Dec 15*** epublish ***

Yasuyoshi Miyata, Tomohiro Matsuo, Kojiro Ohba, Kensuke Mitsunari, Yuta Mukae, Asato Otsubo, Junki Harada, Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Tsubasa Kondo, Hideki Sakai

Department of Urology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8501, Japan.