Although radical cystectomy is considered the gold standard approach for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, tri-modal therapy (TMT) is a well-tolerated and efficacious alternative to radical cystectomy that is underutilized in inoperable patients and rarely offered to cystectomy candidates in the USA.
Retrospective data suggest similar outcomes between radical cystectomy and TMT after adjusting for patient selection and other confounding factors. Nearly 70-80% of patients can keep their native bladder with favorable post-treatment quality of life metrics. Current trials are investigating novel combination strategies including immune checkpoint inhibition along with chemoradiation or radiation. Emerging techniques for improved patient selection and risk stratification include incorporating MP-MRI, and novel biomarkers such as inflammatory, stromal, and DNA damage response gene signatures may guide patient selection and expand the landscape of bladder preservation options available to patients in the future.
Current treatment options in oncology. 2020 Nov 23*** epublish ***
James R Broughman, Winston Vuong, Omar Y Mian
Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue, CA-50, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA., Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue, CA-50, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA. .