Moving towards Personalized Medicine in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going?

Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy is the recommended treatment, with the highest level of evidence, for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, only a minority of patients receive this treatment, mainly due to patient comorbidities, the relatively small survival benefit, and the lack of predictive biomarkers to select those patients most likely to benefit from this multimodal approach. In addition, adjuvant chemotherapy has been recommended for patients with high-risk MIBC, although randomized trials have not provided conclusive evidence on the impact of this approach. At present, however, this situation is changing, largely due to our improved knowledge of the molecular biology of bladder cancer, which has enabled us to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers that can be used to select the most appropriate treatment for each patient. Moreover, new active treatments, especially immunotherapy, have shown promising results in the neoadjuvant setting. In addition, the gene expression profile of bladder tumors can be used to classify them into different subtypes, which correlate with specific clinical-pathological characteristics and with treatment response or resistance. Therefore, the main objective for the near future is to introduce these translational breakthroughs into routine clinical practice in order to personalize treatment for each patient.

International journal of molecular sciences. 2020 Aug 29*** epublish ***

Juan Carlos Pardo, Vicenç Ruiz de Porras, Andrea Plaja, Cristina Carrato, Olatz Etxaniz, Oscar Buisan, Albert Font

Department of Medical Oncology, Catalan Institute of Oncology, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Ctra. Can Ruti-Camí de les Escoles s/n, 08916 Badalona, Spain., Catalan Institute of Oncology, Badalona Applied Research Group in Oncology (B·ARGO), Ctra. Can Ruti-Camí de les Escoles s/n, 08916 Badalona, Spain., Pathology Department, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Spain., Urology Department, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Spain.