Impact of noninvasive down-staging after transurethral resection of bladder tumor plus systemic chemotherapy on bladder-sparing strategy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

To identify the optimal selection criteria for bladder sparing strategy with transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and systemic chemotherapy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).

We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 71 patients with MIBC (T2-4aN0M0) who desire to bladder preservation received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) after maximal TURBT, followed by clinical restaging and second-TURBT. Fifty-eight of 71 patients with no residual tumor on the second-TURBT were placed on conservative management for bladder sparing (BS). Noninvasive down-staging (NID) was defined as cT0/Ta/Tis/T1N0 at first-TURBT after NAC and no residual tumor on second-TURBT. Overall survival (OS) and cystectomy-free survival (CFS) were assessed according to the response of NAC in the BS group by using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent variables predicting OS.

At a median follow-up of 40 months 5-year OS and CFS in patients with NID and non-NID were 89.1% versus 20.8% and 84.8% versus 16.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the ≥3 cycles of NAC (hazard ratio [HR] 0.14, 95% confidential index [CI] 0.03-0.7; P = 0.017) and achievement of NID (HR 0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.46, P = 0.002) favorably associated with OS.

Patients who achieved NID might be optimal candidates for the bladder sparing strategy with maximum TURBT plus NAC followed by second-TURBT.

Urologic oncology. 2020 Aug 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Takehisa Onishi, Sho Sekito, Takuji Shibahara, Tadashi Yabana

Department of Urology, Ise Red Cross hospital, Ise, Mie, Japan. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, Ise Red Cross hospital, Ise, Mie, Japan., Department of Pathology, Ise Red Cross hospital, Ise, Japan.