"Real-world" outcomes and prognostic indicators among patients with high-risk muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma.

There is no current standard of care for patients with high-risk muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgical resection or for those who cannot receive or decline cisplatin-based perioperative chemotherapy. Understanding current, real-world treatment patterns may help inform decisions from clinical, research, and population health management perspectives. We examined real-world treatment patterns, survival outcomes, and prognostic factors among Medicare beneficiaries with high-risk MIUC who did not receive adjuvant treatment after surgical resection.

We identified patients with high-risk MIUC in the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database who underwent surgical resection (radical cystectomy and/or radical nephroureterectomy). Eligible patients had indicators of high-risk MIUC and surgical resection between 2001 and 2013. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including comorbidities, American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) stage, tumor stage/grade and nodal status, and distribution of neoadjuvant treatment by the year of surgical resection were evaluated. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed for the full cohort and by subgroups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate patient demographics and clinical characteristics associated with OS and DFS.

A total of 665 patients were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 75.5 years; most were men (61%) and had AJCC stage IIIA disease (69%). Neoadjuvant treatment increased over the entire study period, both overall (from 12% to 46%) and cisplatin based (from 5% to 38%). Median OS for the entire cohort was 23.1 months (95% confidence interval: 18, 27); median DFS was 13.5 months (95% confidence interval: 11.3, 16.8). AJCC stage IIIB/IVA was the most significant predictor of poor prognosis for both OS and DFS, followed by non-white race and comorbidity burden.

The prognosis for high-risk patients with MIUC remains poor, with significant risk of mortality within 2 years of radical cystectomy despite increasing use of neoadjuvant treatment. Unmet treatment needs persist for this difficult-to-treat patient population despite the increasing use of cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Urologic oncology. 2020 Aug 08 [Epub ahead of print]

Alexandra Drakaki, Allan Pantuck, Shivani K Mhatre, Preet K Dhillon, Nicole Davarpanah, Viraj Degaonkar, Andy Surinach, Karim Chamie, Petros Grivas

University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address: ., University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA., Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA., Genesis Research, Hoboken, NJ., University of Washington, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.