Little is known about the association of diet with risk of bladder cancer. This might be due to the fact that the majority of studies have focused on single food items, rather than dietary patterns, which may better capture any influence of diet on bladder cancer risk. We aimed to investigate the association between a measure of Western dietary pattern and bladder cancer risk. Associations between adherence to a Western dietary pattern and risk of developing bladder cancer were assessed by pooling data from 13 prospective cohort studies in the "BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants" (BLEND) study and applying Cox regression analysis. Dietary data from 580 768 study participants, including 3401 incident cases, and 577 367 non-cases were analysed. A direct and significant association was observed between higher adherence to a Western dietary pattern and risk of bladder cancer (Hazard Ratio (HR) comparing highest with lowest tertile scores: 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37, 1.72; p-trend = 0.001). This association was observed for men (HR comparing highest with lowest tertile scores: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.51, 1.96; p-trend = 0.001), but not women (p-het = 0.001). Results were consistent with HR above 1.00 after stratification on cancer sub-types (non-muscle invasive and muscle invasive bladder cancer). We found evidence that adherence to a Western dietary pattern is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer for men but not women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
International journal of cancer. 2020 Jun 24 [Epub ahead of print]
Mostafa Dianatinasab, Anke Wesselius, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Evan Y W Yu, Maree Brinkman, Mohammad Fararouei, Piet van den Brandt, Emily White, Elisabete Weiderpass, Florence Le Calvez-Kelm, Marc Gunter, Inge Huybrechts, Fredrik Liedberg, Guri Skeie, Anne Tjonneland, Elio Riboli, Graham G Giles, Roger L Milne, Maurice P Zeegers
Department of Epidemiology, Center for Health Related Social and Behavioral Sciences Research, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran., Department of Complex Genetics and Epidemiology, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands., Nutrition and food security research center, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran., Department of Epidemiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran., Department of Epidemiology, Schools for Oncology and Developmental Biology and Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands., Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA., International Agency for Research on Cancer World Health Organization, Lyon, France., Department of Urology Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden., Department of Community Medicine, UIT The Arctic University of Norway., Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK., Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, 615 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.