PTEN: What we know of the function and regulation of this onco-suppressor factor in bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer accounts for high morbidity and mortality around the world and its incidence rate is suggested to be higher in following years. A number of factors involve in bladder cancer development such as lifestyle and drugs. However, it appears that genetic factors play a significant role in bladder cancer development and progression. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a cancer-related transcription factor that is corelated with reduced proliferation and invasion of cancer cells by negatively targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In the present review, we aimed to explore the role of PTEN in bladder cancer cells and how upstream modulators affect PTEN in this life-threatening disorder. Down-regulation of PTEN is associated with poor prognosis, chemoresistance and progression of cancer cells. Besides, microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs and other molecular pathways such as NF-kB are able to target PTEN in bladder cancer cells. Notably, anti-tumor drugs such as kaempferol, β-elemene and sorafenib upregulate the expression of PTEN to exert their inhibitory effects on bladder cancer cells.

European journal of pharmacology. 2020 May 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Milad Ashrafizadeh, Ali Zarrabi, Saeed Samarghandian, Masoud Najafi

Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran., Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center (SUNUM), Tuzla, 34956, Istanbul, Turkey., Healthy Ageing Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran., Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, School of Paramedical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address: .