A number of lifestyle associated factors, such as high body mass index (BMI), low physical activity, and related metabolic disorders, are associated with increased risk of cancer at several sites. For urinary bladder cancer (BC), such studies show inconsistent results, which could result from inadequate adjustment for smoking and occupational exposure. In the population-based Janus Cohort (n = 292 851), we investigated the independent and combined impact of BMI, physical activity, blood pressure, and blood lipids on the risk of BC, by thorough adjustment for smoking and potential occupational exposure. We used cox proportional hazard regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between the lifestyle associated factors and BC risk. The associations observed were dependent on smoking status and gender. Among men, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.12) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07) were positively associated with BC risk. Stratification by smoking status revealed a positive association between DBP and BC risk in never smokers (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00-1.30), while no association was seen for current and former smokers. A risk score, integrating information across the lifestyle factors was positively associated with BC risk in men (ptrend = 0.043). In women, physical activity was associated with a decreased BC risk, but only among never smokers (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.94). In conclusion, relations between lifestyle associated factors and BC risk were most evident in never smokers, suggesting that smoking dominates the relation in current smokers.
Cancer medicine. 2020 Apr 21 [Epub ahead of print]
Helga H Hektoen, Trude E Robsahm, Bettina K Andreassen, Jo S Stenehjem, Karol Axcrona, Alison Mondul, Randi E Gislefoss
Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway., Department of Urology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway., School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.