Urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCB) or bladder cancer remains a major health problem with high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in the western world. UCB is also associated with the highest cost per patient. In recent years numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability in UCB detection and surveillance. However, to date none of these markers can replace or even reduce the use of routine tools (cytology and cystoscopy). Our current study described UCB's extensive expression profile and highlighted the variations with normal bladder tissue. Our data revealed that JUP, PTGDR, KLRF1, MT-TC, and RNU6-135P are associated with prognosis in patients with UCB. The microarray expression data identified also S100A12, S100A8, and NAMPT as potential UCB biomarkers. Pathway analysis revealed that natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity is the most involved pathway. Our analysis showed that S100A12 protein may be useful as a biomarker for early UCB detection. Plasma S100A12 has been observed in patients with UCB with an overall sensitivity of 90.5% and a specificity of 75%. S100A12 is highly expressed preferably in high-grade and high-stage UCB. Furthermore, using a panel of more than hundred urine samples, a prototype lateral flow test for the transcription factor Engrailed-2 (EN2) also showed reasonable sensitivity (85%) and specificity (71%). Such findings provide confidence to further improve and refine the EN2 rapid test for use in clinical practice. In conclusion, S100A12 and EN2 have shown potential value as biomarker candidates for UCB patients. These results can speed up the discovery of biomarkers, improving diagnostic accuracy and may help the management of UCB.
Frontiers in oncology. 2020 Jan 09*** epublish ***
Ayssar A Elamin, Saskia Klunkelfuß, Susanne Kämpfer, Wulf Oehlmann, Matthias Stehr, Christopher Smith, Guy R Simpson, Richard Morgan, Hardev Pandha, Mahavir Singh
LIONEX Diagnostics and Therapeutics GmbH, Brunswick, Germany., Department of Oncology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom., Institute of Cancer Therapeutics, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, United Kingdom.