The long-term risk of secondary malignancy is a potential late effect of brachytherapy. However, the time interval, anatomic site and histopathology are not well studied. We sought to characterize the bladder cancers that developed following treatment of prostate cancer with brachytherapy. Between 1998 and 2014, 4570 patients were treated with brachytherapy at the BC Cancer Agency. Out of those, 69 patients subsequently developed bladder cancer, some of which could have been radiation induced. Histology slides were reviewed for all cases, and site and pathologic features were recorded. Cases were classified as luminal and basal subtypes based on GATA3 and CK5/6 immunohistochemistry. Bladder neck and trigone were among the common sites of involvement. Pathologic review of cases showed that 68 % were high-grade, 25 % were muscle-invasive, and 20 % showed variant histology, including small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. A subgroup of cases more likely to be radiation-induced, based on site and time interval, was associated with increased pathologic stage (pT1 or higher) compared to the other cases (70 % vs 34 %, p = 0.01). In conclusion, the majority of bladder cancers following brachytherapy in this cohort were of high grade and low stage at diagnosis, most of them demonstrating luminal immunophenotype. A significant number of variant histologies are seen, each demonstrating a specific immunophenotype.
Pathology, research and practice. 2020 Jan 10 [Epub ahead of print]
Sammy Au, Mira Keyes, Peter Black, Carlos F Villamil, Peyman Tavassoli
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address: ., Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada., Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada., Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada., Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.