High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is marked by frequent disease recurrences and risk of stage progression, contributing to high surveillance, treatment-related costs, and patient anxiety. Although the mainstay of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer clinical management remains transurethral resection followed by intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), patients who develop BCG-unresponsive disease have few salvage options outside of a radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy. This article provides a historical context relevant to the development of the BCG-unresponsive definition, an overview of current clinical trial expectations, and an introduction to this issue of Urologic Clinics.
The Urologic clinics of North America. 2020 Feb [Epub]
Badrinath R Konety, Vikram M Narayan, Colin P N Dinney
Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street Southeast, MMC 394, Mayo B536, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 1373, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/VikramNarayan., Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 1373, Houston, TX 77030, USA.