Bladder cancer is a deadly and common malignancy, with 24% of new cases presenting as T1 disease. High-grade T1 in particular represents a difficult entity to treat due to its clinical variability and known risks of recurrence, progression, and cancer-specific mortality. The differences in guidelines from major urologic organizations underscore this variability, and the past year has seen another BCG shortage, further complicating management. Advances have been made in the molecular and genomic characterization of high-grade T1, and new clinical trials are available to investigate alternative therapies. In this review, we summarize the variations in guidelines, alternatives to BCG, emerging molecular and genomic discoveries, and recent clinical trials.
Adherence to guidelines for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the community among practicing urologists remains low, in part due to the variations in available guidelines. In the era of a BCG shortage, decreased dosing schedules and alternative intravesical options are increasingly being used. New biomarkers are being discovered to better risk-stratify patients, with future therapies aimed at targeting aggressive disease. HGT1 urothelial carcinoma remains a highly variable and aggressive disease, but we are making significant progress in better characterizing the clinical and molecular factors that influence recurrence and progression, to better guide management.
Current urology reports. 2019 Nov 28*** epublish ***
Wesley Yip, Akbar Ashrafi, Siamak Daneshmand
USC Institute of Urology/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1441 Eastlake Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA., USC Institute of Urology/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1441 Eastlake Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA. .