Screening logs from a pilot randomized controlled trial of radical cystectomy versus chemoradiation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

There is growing interest in a bladder preservation approach using chemoradiation therapy with transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), i.e., combined modality treatment (CMT), for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).

We have initiated a pilot study to determine feasibility of conducting a larger-scale clinical trial comparing CMT to radical cystectomy (RC) in patients with MIBC. Here we present the screening logs from the recruitment phase of this trial.

Patients who were diagnosed to have MIBC after TURBT between April 2016 and August 2017 and considered to be candidates for surgery were enrolled in this prospective, single center, randomized controlled pilot feasibility trial and scheduled to undergo RC (with neoadjuvant chemotherapy if appropriate) or CMT.

Of 62 patients screened during the recruitment phase, only 5 were found to be suitable candidates for either treatment modality hence eligible for randomization. The reasons for exclusion were as follows: multifocal disease (n = 24, 40%), variant histology (n = 15, 25%), previous pelvic radiation (n = 6, 10%), severe lower urinary tract symptoms (n = 5, 8.3%), unwillingness to be enrolled (n = 8, 13.3%), and receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 2, 3.3%). One of the 5 eligible patients was randomized to CMT but was subsequently switched to RC because of a high tumor burden, 1 was randomized to RC, 2 were randomized to CMT but subsequently underwent TURBT and were considered ineligible because of extensive bladder disease, and 1 elected to undergo RC.

We identified many patients with MIBC over a period of 16 months. However, the number of patients eligible to receive chemotherapy and in whom cystectomy and radiation therapy were both valid options was not as high as previously reported in retrospective CMT series. Many patients were excluded after TURBT. Our preliminary data indicate that only a very small subset of patients with MIBC are ideal candidates for CMT. Further research is required to identify patients who are suitable for CMT.

Urologic oncology. 2019 Oct 29 [Epub ahead of print]

Dharam Kaushik, Zheng Shi, Michael A Liss, Hanzhang Wang, Richa Priya Jha, Byeong Yeob Choi, Deepak K Pruthi, Chul S Ha, Ahmed M Mansour, Robert S Svatek

Department of Urology, University of Texas Health, San Antonio, TX. Electronic address: ., Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health, San Antonio, TX., Department of Urology, University of Texas Health, San Antonio, TX., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Texas Health, San Antonio, TX.

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