The effect of radical cystectomy on survival in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

To test the effect of radical cystectomy (RC) with chemotherapy vs only chemotherapy on overall mortality (OM) in metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (mUCUB).

Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (2004-2016), we identified patients with mUCUB. Stratification was made according to treatment: RC with chemotherapy vs only chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariable Cox regression models were used before and after 1:1 propensity score (PS) matching and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW).

Of 2414 patients with mUCUB, 500 (21.0%) vs 1914 (79.0%) were treated with RC with chemotherapy vs only chemotherapy, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression models, RC with chemotherapy was associated with lower OM in the overall cohort (hazard ratio [HR], 0.5; P < .001), after 1:1 PS matching (HR, 0.5; P < .001), after IPTW (HR, 0.5; P < .001) and after accounting for number and location of metastases (HR, 0.5; P < .001). However, higher overall survival after RC with chemotherapy was only observed in patients with one metastatic site (21 vs 16 months; P = .001).

In contemporary patients with mUCUB, RC with chemotherapy is associated with lower OM rates, relative to chemotherapy alone, but only in patients with a single metastatic site. These individuals accounted for the vast majority of patients in whom an RC was performed, despite the presence of metastatic disease.

Journal of surgical oncology. 2019 Sep 28 [Epub ahead of print]

Stefano Luzzago, Carlotta Palumbo, Giuseppe Rosiello, Angela Pecoraro, Marina Deuker, Zhe Tian, Shahrokh F Shariat, Fred Saad, Ottavio de Cobelli, Pierre I Karakiewicz

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria., Department of Urology, European Institute of Oncology (IEO), IRCCS, Milan, Italy.