Background and purpose: Bladder cancer is the most common malignant tumour in the urinary system, with a high incidence and recurrence rate. While the incidence of bladder cancer has been rising in recent years, the prevalence of bladder carcinoma is showing an increasing tendency in the younger age group. There are several methods to detect bladder cancer, but different methods have varying degrees of accuracy which intrinsically depends on the method's sensitivity and specificity. Our aim was to comprehensively summarize the current detection methods for bladder cancer based on the available literature, and at the same time, to find the best combination of different effective methods which can produce a high degree of accuracy in detecting the presence of cancerous cells in the bladder. Materials and Methods: We used key word retrieval method for searching related references in English that had been indexed in PubMed and Medline. Results and Discussion: This paper discussed the different detection methods and their sensitivities/specificities as well as the advantages and disadvantages. We summarized the best identified cancer cell detection methods with higher sensitivity/specificity. Conclusion: The results of this review can positively help to identify accurate methods for detecting bladder cancer and highlight areas to be further improved for future research work.
Journal of Cancer. 2019 Jul 08*** epublish ***
Chao-Zhe Zhu, Hua-Nong Ting, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Teng-Aik Ong
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia., Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia., Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.