Gender Disparity in Cystectomy Postoperative Outcomes: Propensity Score Analysis of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database.

While female gender is considered a protective determinant in the majority of cancers, outcomes in women diagnosed with bladder cancer have continued to show disproportional mortality when compared with men.

The aim of this retrospective propensity score-matched analysis was to evaluate the intra- and postoperative differences among genders, as well as to evaluate reproductive organ-preserving radical cystectomy (ROPRC) as compared with radical cystectomy (RC) as a potential confounder in female cystectomy patients.

Utilizing the American Cancer Society National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP), men and women undergoing a cystectomy between 2011 and 2017 were analyzed. In addition, females undergoing ROPRC and RC were analyzed for immediate postoperative outcomes.

Men and women undergoing a cystectomy were evaluated through propensity score matching (PSM) for baseline differences using a 1:1 caliper width of 0.2 to the nearest neighbor. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we evaluated differences in the risk of readmission, complications, and reoperation in the immediate postsurgical period in males and females. Similarly, differences were assessed in ROPRC and RC groups.

We achieved a balance between males and females after PSM: 1263 males and 1263 females treated with cystectomy. The risks of readmission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.228 [1.005-1.510], p=0.045), superficial surgical site infection (aOR 1.507 [1.095-2.086], p=0.012), and transfusion (aOR 2.031 [1.713-2.411], p<0.001) were increased in females undergoing a cystectomy compared with males. No differences were observed in surgical outcomes in ovarian sparing/RC cohort.

Using the 2011-2017 NSQIP database, we were able to demonstrate an increased rate of postoperative transfusion, readmission rate, and surgical site infection in females who underwent cystectomy. Our findings suggest that females experience an increased rate of complications in the immediate postoperative period. This may ultimately lead to worse oncologic outcomes in females after an RC. Lastly, we did not find any increased rate of complications in ROPRC as compared with RC.

This study highlights differences in immediate postoperative outcomes between males and females undergoing cystectomy for bladder cancer. Some of these potential differences include higher risk of infection, transfusion, and readmission. These differences may predispose females to worse long-term outcomes. In addition, due to potential benefits of ovarian preservation in the recent literature, we also evaluated the risks and complications of ovarian sparing cystectomy. We found ovarian preservation to be a safe and feasible procedure in a highly selected group of patients.

European urology oncology. 2019 Apr 26 [Epub ahead of print]

Laura Bukavina, Kirtishri Mishra, Amr Mahran, Anjali Shekar, David Sheyn, Emily Slopnick, Adoniz Hijaz, Jason Jankowski, Lee Ponsky, Carvell Nguyen

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Urology Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA; Metro Health Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA., Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Urology Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA., Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Urology Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA; Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA., Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; Metro Health Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address: .

E-Newsletters

Newsletter subscription

Free Daily and Weekly newsletters offered by content of interest

The fields of GU Oncology and Urology are rapidly advancing. Sign up today for articles, videos, conference highlights and abstracts from peer-review publications by disease and condition delivered to your inbox and read on the go.

Subscribe