Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer, expected to lead to an estimated 17,670 deaths in the United States in 2019. Clinical management and prognosis of bladder cancer mainly depend on the extent of locoregional disease, particularly whether bladder muscle is involved. Therefore, bladder cancer is often divided into superficial, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and muscle-invasive bladder cancer; the latter often prompts consideration for cystectomy. While precise staging prior to cystectomy is crucial, the optimal preoperative imaging modality used to stage the disease remains controversial. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by computed tomography (CT) urography is the current recommended approach for staging bladder cancer but suffers from a high rate of understaging. We review the recent literature and compare different imaging modalities for assessing the presence of muscle invasion and lymph node involvement prior to cystectomy and highlight the advantages of each modality.
Abdominal radiology (New York). 2019 Aug 03 [Epub ahead of print]
S Mojdeh Mirmomen, Atul B Shinagare, Kristin E Williams, Stuart G Silverman, Ashkan A Malayeri
Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA., Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA., Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA, USA., Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. .