Adaptive Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: Long-term Outcomes With Dose Escalation.

To report long-term outcomes with dose-escalated, image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for bladder preservation in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).

All MIBC patients receiving bladder-preserving ART at our institute from 2009 to 2018 were analysed. For ART, three anisotropic planning target volumes (PTV) were concentrically grown around the simulation bladder volume. A library of intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans was created for each patient. A total dose of 64 Gy in 32 fractions to the entire bladder and 55 Gy to pelvic nodes was planned, with 68 Gy to the tumour bed (2 Gy equivalent dose = 68.7 Gy, α/β = 10) as simultaneous integrated boost for solitary tumours. The most appropriate PTV encompassing the bladder ('plan-of-the-day') was chosen daily using on-board megavoltage imaging. Neoadjuvant and concurrent chemotherapy was prescribed for medically fit patients.

Of a total of 106 patients, most had T2 (68%) or T3 (19%) disease. Ninety-two patients (87%) completed 64 Gy to the whole bladder. Sixty-three patients (59%) received 68 Gy as tumour bed boost. Seventy-six per cent received concurrent weekly chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 26 months, 3-year locoregional control, disease-free survival and overall survival were 74.3, 62.9 and 67.7%, respectively. Eighty-two per cent of patients retained disease-free bladder. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade III/IV acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were 7.5% and 0%, respectively, and late genitourinary/gastrointestinal toxicities were 6.5% and 3.8%, respectively. Overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional control and grade III/IV genitourinary/gastrointestinal toxicities did not differ significantly with dose escalation.

Plan-of-the-day ART is clinically safe and effective for bladder preservation and can be implemented in routine clinical practice. A high bladder preservation rate is achievable without compromising on survival or toxicities. Dose escalation does not seem to affect outcomes.

Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain)). 2019 Jul 10 [Epub ahead of print]

V Murthy, P Gupta, K Baruah, R Krishnatry, A Joshi, K Prabhash, V Noronha, S Menon, M Pal, G Prakash, G Bakshi

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), Mumbai, India. Electronic address: ., Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), Mumbai, India., Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), Mumbai, India., Department of Pathology, Tata Memorial Centre and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), Mumbai, India., Department of Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), Mumbai, India.

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