Causes of death in long-term bladder cancer survivors: A population-based study.

Long-term (> 5 years) bladder cancer survivors represent a distinct subgroup of bladder cancer patients and information about the causes of death in this subgroup is limited. The aim of this study was to review the causes of death in long-term bladder cancer survivors.

The Surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER) database was used to analyze the causes of death of long-term bladder cancer survivors. Patients' characteristics and survival outcomes were reported for the entire cohort in our study. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard model for survival analysis.

A total of 147 781 bladder cancer patients with >5 years survival were identified. This cohort included 81 843 patients surviving 5-10 years and 65 938 patients surviving >10 years. Among the patients who survived 5-10 years, 6.9% died because of primary bladder cancer, 11.0% due to cardiac disease and 7.7% due to nonmalignant pulmonary disease. Among patients surviving >10 years, 3.1% died because of primary bladder cancer, 8.6% due to cardiac disease and 5.8% due to nonmalignant pulmonary disease. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with longer cardiac disease-specific survival among long-term bladder cancer survivors include younger age at diagnosis(<40 years; vs. 40-69 years, P = 0.030 or >69 years, P < 0.001), married status (vs. single status, P < 0.001), white race (vs. African American race, P = 0.002), male (vs. female, P < 0.001), grade I (vs. grade III, P = 0.003 or grade IV, P < 0.001).

The probability of death from primary bladder cancer is still important among various causes of death even 20 years after being diagnosed with bladder cancer. Furthermore, cardiopulmonary causes contributed to a considerable proportion of deaths in long-term bladder cancer survivors.

Asia-Pacific journal of clinical oncology. 2019 May 20 [Epub ahead of print]

Jianqiu Kong, Xiayao Diao, Feiyu Diao, Xinxiang Fan, Junjiong Zheng, Dong Yan, Jian Huang, Haide Qin, Tianxin Lin

Department of Urology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China., Department of General Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.