Urinary markers in the surveillance of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. A literature review.

The surveillance of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is usually performed by cystoscopy and cytology. Until today, no effective urinary biomarker has been used to reduce the morbidity and cost associated with these procedures.

To describe the performance of urinary biomarkers in the surveillance of NMIBC.

on August 1, 2018, a bibliographic search was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library, limited to the last 10 years, with the terms: bladder cancer, recurrence, detection and urine marker.973 registers were obtained, and 27 publications were selected following the PRISMA recommendations.

The negative predictive values (NPV) of several assays could reduce the number of cystoscopies in NMIBC surveillance. Six transcription-factor trials had an NPV rate greater than 90%, and one of them can be performed at the control point. Six transcription-factors evaluations describe anticipated diagnosis between 68% and 83% of their "false positives". Two transcription factors and one protein assays proved reduction between 23% and 35% of surveillance cystoscopies. Nowadays, cell-based assays are restricted to reflex test after doubtful cytologies.

There are few studies analysing the improvement of the NMIBC surveillance protocols. Several transcription factor assays are more precise and allow anticipatory diagnosis. Currently, there are no comparative studies between alternative surveillance protocols and classic ones.

Actas urologicas espanolas. 2019 May 13 [Epub ahead of print]

F Agreda Castañeda, C X Raventós Busquets, J Morote Robles

Hospital Universitario Germans Trias i Pujol, Barcelona, España. Electronic address: ., Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, España; Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, España.

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