Reducing recurrence in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer by systematically implementing guideline-based recommendations: effect of a prospective intervention in primary bladder cancer patients.

In non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), local recurrence after transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) is common. Outcomes vary between urological centres, partly due to the sub-optimal surgical technique and insufficient application of measures recommended in the guidelines.

This study evaluated early recurrence rates after primary TURB for NMIBC before and after introducing a standardized treatment protocol.

Medical records of all patients undergoing primary TURB for NMIBC in 2010 at Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden, were reviewed. A new treatment protocol for NMIBC was defined and introduced in 2013, and results documented during the first year thereafter were compared with those recorded in 2010 prior to the intervention. The primary endpoint was early recurrence at first control cystoscopy. Comparisons were made by Chi-square analysis and Fisher's exact test. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the two cohorts was also investigated.

TURB was performed on 116 and 159 patients before and after the intervention, respectively. The early recurrence rate decreased from 22% to 9.6% (p = 0.005) at the first control cystoscopy after treatment. Residual/Recurrent tumour at the first control cystoscopy after the primary TURB (i.e. at second-look resection or first control cystoscopy) decreased from 31% to 20% (p = 0.038). The proportion of specimens containing muscle in T1 tumours increased from 55% to 94% (p < 0.001). RFS was improved in the intervention group (HR = 0.65, CI = 0.43-1.0; p = 0.05).

Introduction of a standardized protocol and reducing the number of surgeons for primary treatment of NMIBC decreased the early recurrence rate from 22% to 9.6% and lowered the recurrence incidence by 35%.

Scandinavian journal of urology. 2019 May 08 [Epub ahead of print]

Anne Sörenby, Gediminas Baseckas, Pär-Ola Bendahl, Johan Brändstedt, Ulf Håkansson, Stefan Nilsson, Oliver Patschan, Martina Tinzl, Mats Wokander, Fredrik Liedberg, Sigurdur Gudjonsson

a Department of Urology , Skåne University Hospital , Malmö , Sweden., c Division of Oncology and Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund , Lund University, Medicon Village , Lund , Sweden., d Department of Urology , Landspitali University Hospital , Reykjavik , Iceland.