Management of metastatic bladder cancer.

Important advances in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms of tumor progression of urothelial carcinoma (UC) have been achieved over the past decade. The treatment landscape for advanced-stage, unresectable or metastatic UC has shifted dramatically over a short period of time, with 6 new therapeutic agents available for clinical use. The use of traditional chemotherapy and new immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICIs) directed at programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1) or its ligand has led to unprecedented survival benefits in selected patients with metastatic UC. Data show that anti-PD-1 ICIs are not only improving long-term clinical benefit, but also quality of life for patients in the second-line setting. In the front-line setting, regulatory agencies have restricted the indications of atezolizumab and pembrolizumab (both ICIs) to patients with PD-L1positivity with advanced UC and who are platinum-ineligible. Very recently, erdafitinib, a pan-FGFR inhibitor, has been granted accelerated approval by FDA for platinum-pretreated advanced metastatic UC with susceptible FGFR3 or FGFR2 genetic alterations. Enfortumab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate, have been granted breakthrough designation by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic UC. Here we review the clinical trial data that have established standard-of-care treatment for advanced-stage UC. In addition, mechanisms of resistance and biomarkers of response to platinum-based chemotherapies and immunotherapies are also discussed, along with the clinical benefits and limitations of these therapies.

Cancer treatment reviews. 2019 Apr 15 [Epub ahead of print]

Rosa Nadal, Joaquim Bellmunt

Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA., IMIM-Hospital del Mar Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MD, USA. Electronic address: .