Advanced age and female sex have been associated with worse outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A reduced immune response has been implicated as a mechanism. The objective of our study was to analyze the expression patterns of various cellular proteins active in bladder cancer immune pathways, and assess the correlation between age, sex, and the expression of these immune markers.
We obtained surgical tissue samples from equally distributed male/female patients with/without lymph node metastasis who had undergone radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder (n = 50). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3 (cluster of differentiation), CD4, CD8, CD56, LAG-3 (lymphocyte-activation gene), TIM-3 (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain), PD-1 (programmed death) and PD-L1 molecules was performed and scored by a single pathologist (high versus low). Spearman's correlation and Chi square tests investigated the association between age, sex, and IHC results.
Mean age at surgery was 67 years (range 50-78 years); all patients were Caucasians. The following percent of patients scored high for a stain: 18% CD3, 10% CD4, 0% CD8, 0% CD56, 20% LAG-3, 4% TIM-3, 0% PD-1 and 0% PD-L1. There was no association between patients' age, sex, and the expression of any of the immune markers (p > 0.05 for all).
The association between advanced age, female sex, and worse outcomes in bladder cancer may be independent of the immune pathways active in the disease that we examined in this study.
Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII. 2019 Apr 17 [Epub ahead of print]
Bradley C Holland, Akshay Sood, Kristin Delfino, Danuta I Dynda, Sophia Ran, Natalie Freed, Shaheen Alanee
Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA., VCORE-Center for Outcomes Research, Analytics, and Evaluation, Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W. Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA., Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA., Pathology Associates of Central Illinois, Springfield, IL, USA., Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA. .